Classification of Carpets by Region
Turkish carpets devided into some category shown below. You can find here information and gif files about them. Please look them inside to discover beauty on carpets.
Bergama is a little town in northwest part of the country, here there are approximately eighty villages which weave Bergama carpets. This ancient city was one of the most powerfull and richest region in Anatolia. The history of carpet waving in this region has a very old background. Bergama carpets have always been woven as wool on wool material combination while wefts are all red. Knoting density of these rugs is about 12 knots per square cm. and mostly come in three - four square meter sizes. Those woven in Canakkale are slightly larger. Motifs can be divided by two main groups: as Kozak type and Turkish type. Kozak type rugs have big geometrical designs, these ones remind Kozak - Gendje region rugs. In Turkish type usually designs are very floral and emroydreyed with leaves of the pine trees. They consist mainlyof two colours, the dark reds and blues. In these rugs red colour, which is used for dyeing the wool yarns, makes the pile less thick than the rest of the surface after a certain time, so blue motifs appear higher. The evil eyes that you see at the edges give them an exceptionally unusual appearence.
These carpets are made by Yoruk's semi-nomadic tribes who leave near the ocean on the warm plains during the winter months. The willages are arround Antalya, on the Mediterranean cost, are the main producing centers of this type of carpets are made with wool and dyes produced by the nomads themselfs. The predominant colours are always bright red and dark blue, with a smaller amount of white. Distinctive patterns in the borders are the sheep's eye and knife tip and the "hands on hips" motif, an age old symbol denoting female fertility which dates back to the time when the tribes worshipped mader goddesses. The field are usually are taken up by a large red double mihrab, edged in ram's horn motif. Often the shape of the double mihrap is cut into by two triangles on either side. Ears of grain representing fertility and carnetions are frequently seen. If there is a tree of life it's generally made up of carnetions, "the flowers of the people". Some times one can see a strange motif, a stylized representation of the human figure which is used to guard against evil. The number of knots in these carpets are equal to 160,000 knots per square meter.
A wide variaty of type fof carpets are produced in Turkey withn widely varying degrees of quality. For the discerning buyer or collector there are twelve recognized types of carpets, each type produced in different geographical districts and each having distinctive designs, colours and quality. They are easily noted once one learns to "read" or recognize the patterns or designs and colours associated with the geographical area in which produced. the finest contemporary and highest quality of silk and wool carpets currently made in Turkey are produced in town near Istanbul, called Hereke. The Hereke carpets are either woven in pure silk or cotton and wool. The pure silk carpet uses silk from Bursa. In wool and cotton carpets the warps and welfts are cotton and the best quality of wool is used d-for knoots in the pile. The silk Hereke carpets has from 1.0 to 1.2 million knots per square meter. The knot density in the highest quality wool carpets is any where between 360,000 to 400,000 knots per square meter. In second quality wool carpets the knots are around 250,000 to 300,000 per square meter. The dominant colours in Hereke carpets are dark blue, cream and cinnamon and occasionally yellow and green are used. The treditional floral designs are common and each design has its own name, such as : Seljuk Star, Seven Mountain Flowers, Ploneise, 101 Flowers, and Tulip. The flowers in the design and the hormany of colours add warth to a home.
Kars located near the Russian border in Turkey, produces carpets designed in the aucasian style. The main motif used is the large crucilorm. The quiet olive-green combin&d with~a dull red-brown and lighter beige tones give the piece an enormous warmth. The eight stylized trees of life in the corners are surrounded by a Caucasian calyx-and-leaf border and the guard stripes are called 'running dogs." The extremely valuable hand-spun mountain wool is used in the hand weaving and is especially prized by acknowledged buyers. Natural dyed wool is used with the dominate cdours navy blue, red and cream. There are 200.000 knots per square meter in Kars carpet's and for this reason Kars carpets are so noted fine works of art.
The town of Kayseri, situated in central Turkey, has been famous as a carpet making center for centuries. Carpets and Kilims of Kayseri are of various types. Silk carpets, artificial silk and wool (floss), natural wool (no dyes), and Bunyan carpets are the major categories produced. Kayseri carpets are woven both at the workshops and in the homes. Weavers usually buy yarn from shops and after finishing their carpet wolud sell it to the same shop in ordar to buy more yarn. The Kayseri floss carpets with silk looking yarns in bright colours, have found favour with Europeans with their attractive designs. They look very much like silk carpets to foreigners. The sizes, designs and number of knots are the same as Bunyan carpets, but the large sizes are rather rare. In the floss carpets chemical dyes are used, because the yarn (floss) can only be dyed with chemicals. Cotton is used as warp and weft and floss is used for the knots. This carpets are considered the masterpieces of Kayseri and as such are sought out by dealers to sell to the foreign trade. Sometimes Kayseri carpets are woven entirelly in silk and will have 600,000 to 700,000 knots per square meter.
Bunyan carpets are offen in floral designs of a typical Oriental carpet. The yarn is cotton and wool dyed with wegetible dyes, and about 120,000 to 150,000 knots per square meter.The Kayseri Bunyan carpets are made in different sizes; from pillow sizes of 62 by 100 cm. to the large 16 square meters carpet. Kayseri natural wool carpets have all the properties of Bunyan carpets execpt there are not as many colours used as in the Bunyan carpets. Colours of white, cream, light and dark brown and sometimes black are used in this types of carpets with the same number knots as in the Bunyan carpets.
Kozak carpets are woven by semi-nomadic shepherds who live in the highland regions of the Caucasus mountains and their environment is reflected in their products. The distinctive designs in Kozak Carpets can be easily recognized. The warp and weft threads are wool with the weft threads always in red or brown colours. The wool pile in these carpets is fairly deep and the yarn used is always of excellent quality. The Kozak carpet has approximately 50 to 100 Turkish knots per square inch. The motifs used in these carpets are, formal, geometric, central medallion, repeated pattern and "Eagle." True kozak carpets are mostly antique pieces and were produced in the Caucasus Mountains. Currently a limited number of Kozak carpets are produced and are much prized by dealers.
Kula is the name of a town in Western Anatolia where these wool carpets are made. The willage carpets of Kula are woven on a woolen warp and weft and for the most part have strong geometric designs. The colours are rich but soft with earth tones of rust, green, gold, and blue being common, however, the dominant colours are pastel. The most important characteristics of these carpets are that they are woven with 100% wool yarn and have varying patterns, colours and sizes. Kula carpets contain 160,000 knots per square meter. Alaong with all Kula patterns various Anatolian patterns are frequently seen in Kula carpet. Kula carpets resemble those of other Western Anatolian products like, Usak and Gordes, with their wide borders restrained colours.
They also tend to have a short and somewhat lusty pile. Borders usually consists of a number of stripes of about equal width decorated with little stars and flowers. The earliest patterns of Kula carpets were either geometrical or composed of highly stylised nomadic forms. In the last century Kula carpets often had richer and more imaginative floral designs. At the end of the 19th. century they were exported to Europe by the thousands, often under the name of Usak and Gordes carpets. The typical features were a light grey or cream background with floral patterns in pink and blue. Kula carpets which have furnished many homes are very elegant. They were particularly favoured for the dining room and libraries.
Kulluce carpets are produced in a town between Afyon and Denizli. The people of this area are mostly Caucasian immigrants who have been weaving their geometric and Caucasian designs for years. Undyed natural color of shop wool used create tones such as: Beige, dark brown, cream, light brown, black and grey. The number df knots in Kulluce carpets are approximately 140.000 to 160.000 per square meter. These carpets are made in workshops and they are very precise.
Ladik is a town located north of Konya in the hearth of Anatolia. The main sources of income in this area are animal husbandary, agrigalture and carpet production. Konya and Ladik are the oldest carpet making centers in Turkey. Even during the 15th. center the art of carpet weaving florished in Konya becouse it was the capital of the Seljuk Empire and a very important cominication and political center. There are many notible at works an konya and perhaps the most famous in the Green Mosque. From Arabia, Iran and other countries many artists came to Konya to practice their crafts. The surviving carpets of this era offer ample evidence of the Turkish character. During this same period carpet weaving skils pread from Konya to other parts of Anatolia. The colours in Ladik carpets are very vivid and vell matched. After Kula carpets, Ladik carpets, with their 250,000 knots per square meter, are considered just as fine.
Milas is the center of a weaving area in Western Turkey near Izmir. It gives its name to all the carpets produced in the region. Those made in the immediate area of Milas are different in style to those made in the South-west Peninsula, around the center of Karaova. There are four sub-types which constitute the Milas family,' the prayer carpet with the losenge shaped niche, the bright red medallion Milas, the antique Milas which is woven in shades of red-brown and yellow and the Ada Milas which is quite restrained in design. The prayer rugs are the most important sub-type, with their unusual shaped Mihrab, elongated, terminating in a losenge, representing the immortality of the soul. Carpets from no other region have Mihrabs in this shape. there are approximately 160.000 knots per square meter in the Milas carpets.
Taspinar is a small hamlet in the carpet weaving areas of the Nigde. Nigde is one of the main roads that cross the Taurus Mountains. Taspinar produces excellent carpet of a thick pile, knotted in high quality wool. They have a prodominantly blue and red field enlivened by delicate motifs in lighter shades. The yarn is dyed with natural vegitable dyes by the Caucasian methods. Taspinar carpets are amoung the most beatifull of all Anatolian carpets. In the old Taspinar's carpets the Persian influence can be seen which are plant figures and geometric designs used simultanously. However, the rich colours and beautifully proportioned somewhat formal design prevent this unusual mixture from thispleasing the eye. Well cared for, old Taspinars have a vonderfull silk like quality. As the lanolin in the wool rises to the surface it gives the pile a soft rich velvety sheen. New taspinars are made in the same rich colours as old ones, but the designs are becoming more varied. Caucasian and nimadic pattern have become more regular in recent years. The knot density of Taspinar carpets are 140,000 per square meter.
These carpets, made in the vicinity of Kayseri are of a very fine quality and are considered very attractive. A rich red with indigo coloured blue is used throughout the field with a border of brilliant shades of yellow and gold. This carpets are very popular, because of the traditional flawless workmanship of the Yahyali weavers. The main ornamental motif of a contemperary and atique Yahyali is the hexagon which is smilar to those of the Yoruk carpets, but they are more linear in execution. A double hexagon encloses a light blue centerpieces. The hexagon may be single, double or triple. Most Yahyali carpets have these common caracteristics. A main border with stylized flowers and an "old gold" ground, surrounded by two lesser borders with a dark blue ground. The main field is nearly always red, with a blue medallion and corner pieces, which have stepped edges. The warm colour harmony and beatifull designs along with good quality maka the Yahyali carpets one of the most popular carpets of Anatolia. The number of knots in Yahyali carpets are equal to the number of Milas carpest (140,000 knots per square meter).
Yagcibedir carpets are produced in the mountainous areas of the Aegean regions, in the nomad inhabited villages of Mazilar, Islamlar, Karakecili, Yenikoy, Karaoba and Kocaoba (the oba ending means 'nomad tent"). According to the legend Yagcibedir was a butter seller from Kayseri who made excellent quality carpets to supplement his income. He shared his skills with the people of the villages he visited, so when they started to produce, they named their carpets after him. The warp, weft and knots are made of pure lambswool, and the pile is clipped short to allow the pattern to be clearly seen. The dominant colours are dark indigo blue and rich madder red, sometimes with the inclusion of cream, brown, softer shades of red and pinks. As the carpets age they become more and more lovely, as the dark reds fade to a beautiful softred-brown. The colours and patterns of Yagcibedir carpets have remained the same for countless generations. They are very distinctive and easy to recognize. The dark blue ground is patterned with geometric forms: stars, flowers, stylized birds and numerous stars of Suleyman.
The field is framed by a border of five or seven bands. The double ended prayer niche, which indicates that the weavers were Shi-ite Moslems, is very distinctive with an edge of three stepped lines, ending in a ram's horn motif. These carpets are often the favorites of male carpet lovers, due to the masculine colours and simple geometric designs. The knots density in these carets are 160.000 per square meter.