Turkish music is a fusion of classical art music, folk songs, Ottoman military music, Islamic hymns and the norms of western art music. Classical Turkish music is the courtly music of the Ottoman sultans that is an offspring of the Arabic and Persian traditions.Turkish military music of the Janissary Band influenced 18th and 19th century European music, with its percussive character, aksak rhythms and mystical tones. Inspired by the Janissary bands, both Mozart and Beethoven wrote Alla turca movements; Lully and Handel composed operas. Giusseppe Donizetti was one of them. He founded a band in 1831 after Sultan Mahmut II abolished the Guild of Janissaries in 1826. Cemal Resit Rey (1904-1985); Ulvi Cemal Erkin (1906-1972), Hasan Ferit Alnar (1906-1978), Ahmed Adnan Saygun (1907-1991) and Necil Kazim Akses (1908-) Istanbul: Center Of Middle-Eastern Classical Music The state conservatories can be listed as follows: Ankara Hacettepe University; Istanbul University; Istanbul Mimar Sinan University; Izmir Dokuz Eylül University; Mersin University; Edirne University. Çukurova (Adana) University. The traditional Turkish music conservatories are as follows: Istanbul Technical University; Izmir Ege University and Gaziantep University. There are four state symphony orchestras (Ankara Presidetial, Istanbul, Izmir and Adana) as well as opera and ballet houses. Bilkent University has a private music school and a symphonic orchestra in Ankara. Music festivals that are held yearly in Istanbul (for 25 years) and Ankara (for 14 years) are the members of European Festivals Associations. Further Reading AKSOY, Bulent, Avrupali Gezginlerin Gozuyle Osmanllarda Musiki / Music in Ottomans, PanYayincilik, Istanbul, 1994 ALTAR, Cevad Memduh, Opera Tarihi / History of Opera Cilt 4, Kultur Eserleri Dizisi: 25, BARTOK, Bela, Turkish Folk Music from Asia minor, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1976 ILYASOGLU, Evin, 25 Turk Bestecisi/25 Turkish Composers, Pan Yayincilik,Istanbul, 1989 ILYASOGLU, Evin, Muzigin Kanatlarinda Soylesiler, Pan Yayincilik, Istanbul,1992 ILYASOGLU, Evin, Ilhan Usmanbas'a Armagan, Sevda Cenap And Muzik Vakfi Yayinlari, Ankara, 1994 ILYASOGLU, Evin, Zaman Içinde Muzik, Yapi ve Kredi Yayinlari, Istanbul,1994 (4.baskI 1996) ILYASOGLU, Evin, Cemal Resit Rey-Muzikten ibaret bir dunyada gezintiler, Yapi ve Kredi Yayinlari SAY, Ahmet, Muzik Tarihi / History of Music, Muzik Ansiklopedisi Yayinlari, Ankara,1994, SELANIK, Cavidan, Muzik Sanatinin Tarihsel Seruveni, Doruk Yayimcilik, Ankara, 1996. Bosphorus University;Istanbul has been a musical center in several different musical genres and traditions since the ninth century. Beginning from the Byzantine times the city maintained its central role in music both during the Ottoman period and during the Westernization process of Modern Turkey. Having been the administrative and the cultural center of two empires, the city has attracted musicians throughout many centuries. Masters of music active in Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) produced new musical genres and styles and introduced them into other parts of the land. historians of Byzantine music, at the latest in the ninth century the center of Byzantine liturgical music shifted to Constantinople from Syria (especially from Antioch and Damascus), and Palestine Byzantine music. Today experts of this music distinguish between four major styles of performance: the Constantinople, Mt. Athos, Thessalonika, and Athens styles Along side the Turks, the Ottoman Jews and Armenians Istanbul. Franz Liszt, Henri Vieuxtemps, Angelo Mariani, Luigi Arditi, August von Adelburg, and Leopold composers as Verdi, Rossini, Donizetti, Bellini and many others were performed in Istanbul Turkey: jazz music and Western pop music.canto in istanbul,turkey Ottoman court in music,Ottoman Sultan Murad II and sent it from Samarkand to Edirne ,Konya, had sent to Osman Gazi,Giyaseddin Mes'ud, the Seljuk sultan, Safiuddin Abdulmumin Urmevi and Islamic sources, Hizir bin Abdullah's Edvar-i Musiki, Nakaavetu'l-Edvar by Abdulkadir Meragi's son Abdulaziz, Fethullah es-Sirvani's Mecelle fi'l-Musiki, dedicated to Mehmed II, Persia, Azerbaijan, Transoxania, and Anatolia came to Istanbul,Islamic world such as Herat, Samarkand, Baghdad, and Cairo. Istanbul was the last major stage in the development of this historical music. Edirne, Bursa, Izmir, Selanik (Thessalonika), Aleppo, Damascus Religious Music , Hence, Mevlevi, Bektashi, Celveti, Kadiri, Halveti, Rifayi, Gulsheni, Cerrahi and other orders in Istanbul had different musical styles, performance, and composition forms. Of course, tekkes have dealt with music primarily for its functional purposes in their liturgical ceremonies. However, their interest in music was not restricted to functionality. In some tekkes music was given more importance in the ceremony. The Mevlevi order was the leading one among them. In the Mevlevi liturgy, music was so exalted that it was the sanctified means to reach God. This factor prepared the ground for music to grow into an almost autonomous occupation in the Mevlevi circles. urban folk dances. Kocek, tavsan and cengi groups had singers, players and dancers, of both sexes. Istanbul folk songs (Istanbul turkuleri Rumeli turkuleri,,Turku,Hammamizade Ismail Dede (1778-1846), who is considered to be the apex of the tradition, is also well-known for his Rumeli turkus and kocekces. Buhurizade Mustafa Itri 1712 Turkish shadow plays, known as Karagoz ,Western music in Istanbul. The Europeans and Levantines, basically of Italian origin and living around the Galata district, were used to Western music, but the non-Muslim Ottoman communities were not influenced by Western elements and remained indifferent to European melody. Turkish, Greek and Armenian traditions had all shared the same musical basis prevalent in the Middle East. Since the Sephardic Jews, who came from Spain, had already been introduced to Arabic music when they were in Spain, they found the music in Istanbul familiar to their own. Turkish influence on Orthodox Greek music, Turkish music. Zaharya (18th c.), for example, who composed a few pieces for the Greek Church, which are very rarely performed, is not at all considered an important composer in Greek music, while in Ottoman-Turkish music his name is mentioned together with masters like Itri, Tab'u, Sadullah Agha and Dede Efendi. Oskiyan (18th and 19th centuries), an Armenian tanbur and ney player, whose name has not been recorded in Armenian history, is known in Turkish music as one of the most remarkable representatives of the traditional performance in tanbur. The Greek composer Ilya (18th c.) has an unshakable place in the repertoire with his few but outstanding compositions. Tanburi Emin Aga, Markar, Tatyos, Kemenceci Nikolaki, Kemenceci Vasil, Lavtaci Andon and Hristo, Bimen Sen, Levon Hanciyan, Izak Varon and many others will ever remain in their position in the history of the tradition. The greatest musicological contributions to Ottoman-Turkish music came from three non-Muslim Musicians: Ali Ufki (17th c.), a Pole taken captive in war, known as Albert Bobowski in Western sources; Demetrius Cantemir (1673-1723), prince of Moldavia and a well-known historian who produced a history of the Ottoman Empire; Hampartzum Limonciyan (1768-1839), chief musician of the Armenian Church in Istanbul.Greek, Jewish, Armenian and Gypsy women. playing the Ney istanbul,turkey,ottomans The great Turkish poet Yahya Kemal Beyatli (1844-1958) once said "Our novel is our songs".Ahmet Hamdi Tanpinar Ali, Gelibolulu Mustafa, 1956 (facsimile publication). Mevaidu'n-nefais Fi Kavaidi'l Mecalis, Istanbul, and Gorgu ve Toplum Kurallari Ustune Ziyafet Sofralari I-II, ed. By Orhan Saik Gokyay, Istanbul, 1978 (in modern Turkish). Ali Ufki, 1976. Mecmua-i Saz u Soz / Magazine of Lyrics and Music, ed. By Sukru Elcin, Ankara. And, Metin, 1982. Osmanli Senliklerinde Turk Sanatlari / Turkish Arts at Ottoman Festivities, Ankara. Bardakci, Murat, 1986. Maragali Abdulkadir, Istanbul. Bardakci, Murat, 1993. Fener Beylerine Turk Sarkilari / Turkish Songs for Fener Masters, Istanbul. Behar, Cem, 1987. Klasik Turk Musikisi Uzerine Denemeler / Essays on Classical Turkish Music, Istanbul. Behar, Cem, 1993. Zaman, Mekan, Muzik / Time, Space, Music, Istanbul. Cantemir, Demetrius, 1992. The Collection of Notations, ed. Owen Wright, London. D'Ohsson, Ignatius Mouradje, 1788. Tableau Générale de l'Empire Ottoman v. VIII, Paris. Ergun, Saadettin Nuzhet, 1942-1943. Turk Musikisi Antolojisi I-II / Anthology of Turkish Music I-II, Istanbul. Evliya Celebi, 1969. Seyahatname I-II / Book of Travels I-II, ed. by Zuhuri Danisman, Istanbul. Ezgi, Suphi, 1933-1953. Nazari, Ameli Turk Musikisi I-V / Theoretical and Applied Turkish Music. Istanbul. Gazmihal, Mahmut Ragip, 1939. Turkiye-Avrupa Musiki Munasebetleri / Musical Relations Between Turkey and Europe, Istanbul. Gazmihal, Mahmut Ragip, 1968. "Asirlar Boyunca Tarihi Turk Musikisi / Historical Turkish Music Along Centuries", Musiki Mecmuasi, 239-240. Inal, Ibnulemin M. K., 1958. Hos Sada / Nice Echo, Istanbul. Kantemiroglu (Demetrius Cantemir), 1976. Kitab-i Ilmul-Musiki ala vechi'l-Hurufat ed. by Yalcin Tura, Istanbul. Keneth Levy, 1980. "Byzantine Rite...", The New Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, v. 3. Neubauer, Eckhard, 1994. "15. Ve 16. Yuzyillarda Istanbul'da Musiki Hayati / Musical Life at Istanbul in the 15th and 16th Centuries", Dunden Bugune Istanbul Ansiklopedisi / Istanbul Encyclopedia, v. 5. Oztuna, Yilmaz, 1992. Buyuk Turk Musikisi Ansiklopedisi / Large Edition of Encyclopedia of Turkish Music, Ankara. Pekin, Ersu, 1994. "Senliklerde Musiki / Music at Festivities", Dunden Bugune Istanbul Ansiklopedisi, v. 7. Sanal, Haydar, 1964. Mehter Musikisi / Military Music, Istanbul. Saz, Leyla, 1974. Harem'in Ic Yuzu / Real Story of Harem, Istanbul. Sevengil, Refik Ahmed, 1959-1968. Turk Tiyatrosu Tarihi / History of Turkish Theater, II-V, Istanbul. Signell Karl L. 1977. Makam: Modal Practice in Turkish Art, Seattle. Toderini, Giambatista, 1787. Letteratura Turchesca, v. I, Venice. Uludag, Suleyman, 1992. Islam Acisindan Musiki ve Sema / Music and Sema Dance from Islamic View, Bursa. Uzuncarsili Ismail Hakki, 1977. "Osmanlilar Zamaninda Saraylarda Musiki Hayati / Musical Life at Palaces During the Ottoman Period", Belleten, XLI, 161. Ungor, Etem Ruhi, 1989. Karagoz Musikisi / Music of Karagoz- Shadow puppetry, Ankara. Walker, M.A. 1886. Eastern Life and Scenery with Excursions in Asia Minor, London. Wellesz, Egon, 1961. A History of Byzantine Music and Hymnography, Oxford. Wright, Owen, 1992. Words Without Songs, London. Wright, Owen, 1994. "17. Ve 18. Yuzyillardaki Yapisal Degisimler / Structural Evolutions of the 17th and 18th Centuries", Dunden Bugune Istanbul Ansiklopedisi, v. 5. REFERENCES;BELON, Pierre du Mans 1553. La Observations de Plusieurs Singularitez, Paris. EZGI, Suphi 193.undated (1938 ?). Nazari, Ameli Turk Musikisi I, III. Istanbul: Istanbul Konservatuvari Nesriyati. FONTON, Charles 1993. Turkish Music in 18th Century, translated by Cem Behar. Istanbul: Pan Yayincilik. GARFIAS, Robert 1981. Survivals of Turkish Characteristics in Romanian Musica Lautareasca. Yearbook for Traditional Music, 13: 97-107. GARFIAS, Robert 1984. "Dance Among the Urban Gypsies of Romania. Yearbook for Traditional Music, 16: 84-93. HIZIR AGA (Kemani), undated (XVIIIth c.). Tefhimu'l-Mekaamat fi Tevlidi'n-Nagaamat. Library of Topkapi Palace, Hazine MSS 1793. LOIR du 1654. Les Voyages du Sieur du Loir. Paris. NEUBAUER, Eckhard 1994. 15. ve 16. Yuzyillarda Istanbul'da Musiki Hayati. Istanbul Encyclopedia, V, 523-525. OZERGIN, M. Kemal 1971. The Instruments in Ottoman Lands in 17th Century I-IV. Turk Folklor Arastirmalari 262-265: 5955-5959, 6006-6009, 6031-6036, 6049-6055. POSTEL, Guillaume 1560. De la Republique des Turcs. Poitiers. SAYGUN, Ahmet Adnan 1976. Bela Bartoks Folk Music Research in Turkey, ed. Laszlo Vikar. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado. TODERINI, Giambatista 1787. Letteratura Turchesca I Venice. WARD-JACKSON, Peter 1955, March. Some Rare Drawings by Melchior Lorichs in the Collection of Mr. John Evelyn of Wotton, and now at Stonor Park, Oxfordshire, The Connoisseur. Greek and Gypsy tradition in the kemence has been carried on by other Greek, Gypsy, and Gypsy-Greek kemence players. Sultan Mahmud I (1730-1754). Yorgi was followed by Kemani (subsequently Tanburi) Izak, and Kemani Miron of Romania. Violinist and composer Denizoglu Ali Bey (Gypsy), Sebuh (Armenian), Sinekemani Kapril (Armenian), the brother of famous composer Nikogos, Tatyos (Armenian) were other well-known violinists of the last century. Another popular instrument of the Gypsies in the sixteenth century was the davul (drum) and the zurna (shawm). The Gypsies have brought up countless good davul and zurna players throughout the centuries. The zurna made its way both to the Mehterhane (Ottoman military band) and the incesaz (classical music). One should note here the well-known miniature of Levni, representing the Harems musical ensemble, which consisted of four instruments: the tanbur, the miskal (the Ottoman panflute), the zurna, and the daire (tambourine). istanbul,turkey Cingene (Gypsy) because all the cengis were Gypsy women Gypsy women. Guillaume Postel, who was sent by Francoise I of France in the 1530s as the scientific attache to Ambassador La Forest in Istanbul, saw Gypsy women Evliya Celebi,Demetrius Cantemir ,Zaharya, for instance, an eighteenth century Greek musician, has become immortalised as one of the greatest composers of Ottoman music. His very few religious compositions are not considered important at all for Greek church music and are very rarely performed (Personal information from Mr. Leonidas Asteris, Protopsaltis of the Greek Orthodox Church of the Patriarchate at Fener, Istanbul, and a member of the State Opera in Istanbul). Fresko Romano of Ortakoy (1745-1814), known as Tanburi Izak in Ottoman music, was not recorded in the history as a synagogue cantor but as one of the remarkable composers of Ottoman music and the greatest representative of the traditional tanbur style and also the tanbur teacher of Sultan Selim III. Oskiyan the Jeweller of Samatya (18th c.), whose name is now not even remembered by the Armenian community, occupies a prestigious place in the history of Ottoman music as one of the greatest masters of the tanbur. The Greek composer Ilya (18th c.) has an unshakable place in the repertoire with his few but outstanding compositions. It is impossible to list the names of all good non-Muslim musicians here. Traditional Turkish music is a unification of Art Music and Folk Music. Art Music was performed in the Court and at the religious centers. Its lyrics are drived from Divan (Court) literature Asakir-i Mansurei Muhammediye (the Reformed Soldiers of Mahmud). This new army needed something more than the habitual tunes of the Mehteran, and the winds band of Muzika-i Humayun were formed. This music group also functioned as court musicians. Giuseppe Donizetti (1788-1856), brother of the famous Italian opera composer, became its director. Donizetti Pasha (General Donizetti) the Tanzimat (Reformation) came the French Theatre (opened 1839) where. This web site uses frames, but your browser doesnt support them. This web site uses frames, but your browser doesnt support them.